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“During the seventh century, the Prophet Muhammad united the nomadic Arabs of the Arabian peninsula. In a single century the Arabs conquered an empire from India to North Africa and Spain. This great empire divided into a western kingdom with its capital in Cordova, Spain, and an eastern kingdom centered around Baghdad, which was founded in 766 by Caliph AI’Mansur.8 The Caliph opened the gates of Baghdad to all scholars, regardless of ethnic or religious origin, and Baghdad became a great center for learning, and a repository of knowledge, especially that of the Greeks and Hindus.”

The Mathematical Traveler
Calvin C. Clawson